Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as “a bodily exercise precious to health.” But ___1____some claims to the contrary, laughing probably has little influence on physical fitness Laughter does ___2___short-term changes in the function of the heart and its blood vessels, ____3___ heart rate and oxygen consumption But because hard laughter is difficult to ___4___, a good laugh is unlikely to have ___5___benefits the way, say, walking or jogging does.
___6____, instead of straining muscles to build them, as exercise does, laughter apparently accomplishes the ___7___, studies dating back to the 1930’s indicate that laughter___8___ muscles, decreasing muscle tone for up to 45 minutes after the laugh dies down.
Such bodily reaction might conceivably help ___9___the effects of psychological stress. Anyway, the act of laughing probably does produce other types of ___10___ feedback, that improve an individual’s emotional state. ___11___one classical theory of emotion, our feelings are partially rooted ___12___ physical reactions. It was argued at the end of the 19th century that humans do not cry ___13___they are sad but they become sad when the tears begin to flow.
Although sadness also ___14___ tears, evidence suggests that emotions can flow ______15_________ muscular responses. In an experiment published in 1988,social psychologist Fritz Strack of the University of würzburg in Germany asked volunteers to ____16____ a pen either with their teeth-thereby creating an artificial smile – or with their lips, which would produce a(n) ____17____ expression. Those forced to exercise their smiling muscles ___18___ more exuberantly to funny cartons than did those whose mouths were contracted in a frown, ___19___ that expressions may influence emotions rather than just the other way around ___20___ , the physical act of laughter could improve mood.
1．[A]among [B]except [C]despite [D]like
2．[A]reflect [B]demand [C]indicate [D]produce
3．[A]stabilizing [B]boosting [C]impairing [D]determining
4．[A]transmit [B]sustain [C]eva luate [D]observe
5．[A]measurable [B]manageable [C]affordable [D]renewable
6．[A]In turn [B]In fact [C]In addition [D]In brief
7．[A]opposite [B]impossible [C]average [D]expected
8．[A]hardens [B]weakens [C]tightens [D]relaxes
9．[A]aggravate [B]generate [C]moderate [D]enhance
10．[A]physical [B]mental [C]subconscious [D]internal
11．[A]Except for [B] According to [C] Due to [D] As for
12．[A]with [B]on [C]in [D]at
13．[A]unless [B]until [C]if [D]because
14．[A]exhausts [B]follows [C]precedes [D]suppresses
15．[A]into [B]from [C]towards [D]beyond
16．[A]fetch [B]bite [C]pick [D]hold
17．[A]disappointed [B]excited [C]joyful [D]indifferent
18．[A]adapted [B]catered [C]turned [D]reacted
19．[A]suggesting [B]requiring [C]mentioning [D]supposing
20．[A]Eventually [B]Consequently [C]Similarly [D]Conversely
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
The decision of the New York Philharmonic to hire Alan Gilbert as its next music director has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since the sudden announcement of his appointment in 2009. For the most part, the r