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Section II  Use of English


Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency (crimes committed by young people) focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence. Theories ___21___ on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior ___22___ they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through ___23___ with others. Theories focusing on the role of society suggest that children commit crimes in ___24___ to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status, ___25___ as a rejection of middle-class values.

Most theories of juvenile delinquency have focused on children from disadvantaged families, ___26___ the fact that children from wealthy homes also commit crimes. The latter may commit crimes ___27___ lack of adequate parental control. All theories, however, are tentative and are ___28___ to criticism.

Changes in the social structure may indirectly ___29___ juvenile crime rates. For example, changes in the economy that ___30___ to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment ___31___ make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. The resulting discontent may in ___32___ lead more youths into criminal behavior.

Families have also ___33___ changes these years. More families consist of one-parent households or two working parents; ___34___, children are likely to have less supervision at home ___35___ was common in the traditional family ___36___. This lack of parental supervision is thought to be an influence on juvenile crime rates. Other ___37___ causes of offensive acts include frustration or failure in school, the increased ___38___ of drugs and alcohol, and the growing ___39___ of child abuse and child neglect. All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act, ___40___ a direct causal relationship has not yet been established.

21.  [A] acting

[B] relying

[C] centeringC

[D] commenting

22.  [A] before

[B] unless

[C] untilD

[D] because

23.  [A] interaction

[B] assimilation

[C] cooperationA

[D] consultation

24.  [A] return

[B] reply

[C] referenceD

[D] response

25.  [A] or

[B] but rather

[C] butA

[D] or else

26.  [A] considering

[B] ignoring

[C] highlightingB

[D] discarding

27.  [A] on

[B] in

[C] forC

[D] with

28.  [A] immune

[B] resistant

[C] sensitiveD

[D] subject

29.  [A] affect

[B] reduce

[C] checkA

[D] reflect

30.  [A] point

[B] lead

[C] comeB

[D] amount

31.  [A] in general

[B] on average

[C] by contrastA

[D] at length

32.  [A] case

[B] short

[C] turnC

[D] essence

33.  [A] survived

[B] noticed

[C] undertakenD

[D] experienced

34.  [A] contrarily

[B] consequently

[C] similarlyB

[D] simultaneously

35.  [A] than

[B] that

[C] whichA

[D] as

36.  [A] system

[B] structure

[C] conceptB

[D] heritage

37.  [A] assessable

[B] identifiable

[C] negligibleB

[D] incredible

38.  [A] expense

[B] restriction

[C] allocationD

[D] availability

39.  [A] incidence

[B] awareness

[C] exposureA

[D] popularity

40.  [A] provided

[B] since

[C] althoughC

[D] supposing

Section III Reading Comprehension

Part A


Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

Hunting for a job late last year, lawyer Gant Redmon stumbled across CareerBuilder, a job database on the Internet. He searched it with no success but was attracted by the sites personal search agent. Its an interactive feature that lets visitors key in job criteria such as location, title, and salary, then E-mails them when a matching position is posted in the database. Redmon chose the keywords legal, intellectual property, and Washington, D.C. Three weeks later, he got his first notification of an opening. I struck gold, says Redmon, who E-mailed his resume to the employer and won a position as in-house counsel for a company.

With thousands of career-related sites on the Internet, finding promising openings can be time-consuming and inefficient. Search agents reduce the need for repeated visits to the databases. But although a search agent worked for Redmon, career experts see drawbacks. Narrowing your criteria, for example, may work against you: Every time you answer a question you eliminate a possibility. says one expert.

For any job search, you should start with a narrow conceptwhat you think you want to do -- then broaden it. None of these programs do that, says another expert. Theres no career counseling implicit in all of this. Instead, the best strategy is to use the agent as a kind of tip service to keep abreast of jobs in a particular database; when you get E-mail, consider it a reminder to check the database again. I would not rely on agents for finding everything that is added to a database that might interest me, says the author of a job-searching guide.

Some sites design their agents to tempt job hunters to return. When CareerSites agent sends out messages to those who have signed up for its service, for example, it includes only three potential jobs -- those it considers the best matches. There may be more matches in the database; job hunters will have to visit the site again to find them -- and they do. On the day after we send our messages, we see a sharp increase in our traffic, says Seth Peets, vice president of marketing for CareerS

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