Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
People are, on the whole, poor at considering background information when making individual decisions. At first glance this might seem like a strength that ___1___ the ability to make judgments which are unbiased by ___2___ factors. But Dr Simonton speculated that an inability to consider the big ___3___ was leading decision-makers to be biased by the daily samples of information they were working with. ___4___, he theorized that a judge ___5___ of appearing too soft ___6___crime might be more likely to send someone to prison ___7___he had already sentenced five or six other defendants only to forced community service on that day.
To ___8___this idea, they turned their attention to the university-admissions process. In theory, the ___9___ of an applicant should not depend on the few others___10___ randomly for interview during the same day, but Dr Simonton suspected the truth was___11___.
He studied the results of 9,323 MBA interviews ___12___ by 31 admissions officers. The interviewers had ___13___ applicants on a scale of one to five. This scale ___14___ numerous factors into consideration. The scores were ___15___ used in conjunction with an applicant’s score on the GMAT, a standardized exam which is ___16___out of 800 points, to make a decision on whether to accept him or her.
Dr Simonton found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one ___17___ that, then the score for the next applicant would___18___ by an average of 0.075 points. This might sound small, but to___19___the effects of such a decrease a candidate would need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been ___20___.
1. A grants B submits C transmits D delivers
2. A minor B external C crucial D objective
3. A issue B vision C picture D moment
4. A Above all B On average C In principle D For example
5. A fond B fearful C capable D thoughtless
6. A in B for C to D on
7. A if B until C though D unless
8. A. test B. emphasize C. share D. promote
9. A. decision B. quality C. status D. success
10. A. found B. studied C. chosen D. identified
11. A. otherwise B. defensible C. replaceable D. exceptional
12. A. inspired B. expressed C. conducted D. secured
13. A. assigned B. rated C. matched D. arranged
14. A. put B. got C. took D. gave
15. A. instead B. then C. ever D. rather
16. A. selected B. passed C. marked D. introduced
17. A below B after C above D before
18. A jump B float C fluctuate D drop
19. A achieve B undo C maintain D disregard
20. A necessary B possible C promising D helpful
Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
In the 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada ,Miranda Priestly, played by Meryl Streep, scolds her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn’t affect her, Priestly explains how the deep blue color of the assistant’s sweater descended over the years from fashion shows to departments stores and to the bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment.
This top-down conception of the fashion business couldn`t be more out of date or at odds with the feverish would described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline`s three-year indictment of “fast fashion”. In the last decade or so, advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as Zara, H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely. Quicker turnarounds mean less wasted inventory, more frequent release, and more profit. These labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposable-meant to last only a wash or two, although they don’t advertise that –and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks. By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace.
The victims of this revolution, of course, are not limited to designers. For H&M to offer a $5.95 knit miniskirt in all its 2,300-pius stores around the world, it must rely on low-wage overseas labor, order in volumes that strain natural resources, and use massive amounts of harmful chemicals.
Overdressed is the fashion world`s answer to consumer-activist bestsellers like Michael Pollan`s. The Omnivore`s Dilemma. “Mass-produced clothing ,like fast food, fills a hunger and need, yet is non-durable and wasteful,” Cline argues. Americans, she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year – about 64 items per person – and no matter how much they give away, this excess leads to waste.
Towards the end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a Brooklyn woman named Sarah Kate Beaumont, who since 2008 has made all of her own clothes – and beautifully. But as Cline is the first to note, it took Beaumont decades to p